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HellBound Hackers | Computer General | Programming

Author

Python Traceroute

FriendOfRaven
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Posts: 1
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Joined: 20.02.17
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Newbie
Posted on 20-02-17 21:52
Introduction
This is my first tutorial on here so I do apologise if it is poorly written. Feel free to correct me on anything I do explain wrongly. It needs to be run as root on *nix as works with raw sockets. If you do not understand any part of this, post all questions publicly so I can answer for everyone else with the same question. Of course it must be mentioned, in any real task use the proper tool, this is purely an exercise to get more comfortable using python and sockets. Perhaps even gaining better knowledge of networking as a result or hopefully peaking interest into the field. Writing this will help me learn by making sure I understand it all, please let me know if I make any mistakes.

Theory
Packets get passed from your computer, to your router, then forwarded to switches and routers etc on their way to the server you wish to contact. Network administrators often need to find where there are unnecessary delays in networks or find where the packets get interrupted so that they can narrow down the search for broken links in their network.
Some systems won't respond to the request as it can sometimes be used as part of a DDoS attack. In most cases it is highly unlikely to need more than 30 stops on the way so the script uses 30 'hops' as a default limit. The application that this script is a much simpler version of is traceroute on *nix or tracert on windows. to execute them simply type into a command line "traceroute google.com" or "tracert google.com".


Simplified Pseudocode:
Code

    Call imports
    Create variables
    Create Loop
    Set variables for this iteration
    Send packet
    Receive response
    Print next line in table
    End loop if over 30 hops or address reached





Python Script Outline
Code

#!/usr/bin/python
*Imports*

def main(dest_name):
    *Socket variables*
    *Timing Variables*
    *Print table headers*
    while True:
        *Create Sockets*
        *Set Timer*
        *Send packet*
        *Wait for Response*
        *Print findings*
        *End Loop*

if __name__ == "__main__":
    *Take Arguments*
    main(dest_name)





Add Imports
There are 3 imports used in this script. The first is socket, used to create the network connections used in this script. To find if there is lag in the network, rather than just finding dead links, this script returns the time taken for each packet to find where there is undue lag. To do this the time must be imported. The final import used is sys, used to handle arguments passed to the script.
Code

import socket
import time
import sys





Take Argument
Using the sys module, you can accept arguments into your python script. Sys allows you to access variables used by the interpreter functions to interact with them. Arguments passed are stored in list 'argv'. argv[0] is the filename of the script, depending on OS it will either be the file name or the full file path. argv[1] is the first variable passed. To find the length of a list in python it is easiest to use "len(sys.argv)". If a variable has been passed to the script the length will be 2, otherwise 1.
Code
 
if __name__ == "__main__":
    dest_name = "google.com"
    if len(sys.argv)>1:
        dest_name = sys.argv[1]
    main(dest_name)





Setting up Socket
Sockets that we will use are recv_socket and send_socket. To create a socket you must pass the variables "Address Family", we will stick to ipv4 in this case which is "AF_INET". Then we pass a variable to state which of the 7 layers of the network you are using, for future reference layer 1 is physical. We will be using level 3 (Network Layer) with "socket.SOCK_RAW". The final variable is the protocol used which for the recv_socket is ICMP.
For the send_socket we use "socket.SOCK_DGRAM" instead of raw so that we can send an UDP packet. We create the variables "curr_addr" and "curr_name". settimeout is set to 5 seconds to make sure the script doesn't get left hanging when a switch or router etc doesn't respond to the packets timing out. Sendto sends an empty packet as content is an empty string in this case.
Code

recv_socket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_RAW, icmp)
    recv_socket.settimeout(5)
    recv_socket.bind(("",port))

    send_socket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM, udp)
    send_socket.setsockopt(socket.SOL_IP, socket.IP_TTL, ttl)
    curr_addr = None
    curr_name = None
    send_socket.sendto("",(dest_name, port))





Receive Responses
This script uses a basic try-except. Try is simply listening for a response, simply jumps out with 'pass' if and exception occurs, and finally closes the sockets. I do not see any reason to explain the rest of this segment as it is quite clear that it prints to the console. Any confusion over the print function please RTFM
Code

    try:
            _, curr_addr = recv_socket.recvfrom(512)
            curr_addr = curr_addr[0]
        except socket.error:
            pass
        finally:   
            send_socket.close()
            recv_socket.close()
        finish = time.time() * 1000
        if curr_addr is not None:   
            curr_name = socket.getfqdn(curr_addr)
            curr_host = "%s (%s)" % (curr_name, curr_addr)
            print "%d\t%s\t%dms" % (ttl,curr_host,finish-start)
        else:
            curr_host = "*"
            print "%d\t*No ICMP Response*" % ttl





Timing
Using 'time, we take note of the start time as "start = time.time()*1000" to get the time in millisecond. Once a response has been received we use "finish = time.time()*1000" and subtract the variable start to get the time taken in milliseconds.

Summary
This is the full code with some tidying. The only call I haven't explained this far is "socket.getfqdn(curr_addr)" which stands for "Fully Qualified Domain Name".
Code

#!/usr/bin/python
import socket
import time
import sys
def main(dest_name):
    dest_addr = socket.gethostbyname(dest_name)
    port = 33434
    icmp = socket.getprotobyname('icmp')
    udp = socket.getprotobyname('udp')
    ttl = 1
    max_hops = 30
    start = time.time()
    total_time = 0
    jump_time = 0
    print "TTL\tHost Details\t\tTime"
    while True:
        recv_socket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_RAW, icmp)
        recv_socket.settimeout(5)
        send_socket = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM, udp)
        send_socket.setsockopt(socket.SOL_IP, socket.IP_TTL, ttl)
        recv_socket.bind(("",port))
        curr_addr = None
        curr_name = None
        start = time.time() * 1000
        finish = time.time()
        send_socket.sendto("",(dest_name, port))   
        try:   
            _, curr_addr = recv_socket.recvfrom(512)
            curr_addr = curr_addr[0]
        except socket.error:
            pass
        finally:   
            send_socket.close()
            recv_socket.close()
        finish = time.time() * 1000
        if curr_addr is not None:
            curr_name = socket.getfqdn(curr_addr)
            curr_host = "%s (%s)" % (curr_name, curr_addr)
            print "%d\t%s\t%dms" % (ttl,curr_host,finish-start)
        else:
            curr_host = "*"
            print "%d\t*No ICMP Response*" % ttl
        ttl += 1
        if curr_addr == dest_addr or ttl > max_hops:
            break

if __name__ == "__main__":
    dest_name = "google.com"
    if len(sys.argv)>1:
        dest_name = sys.argv[1]
    main(dest_name)



Author

RE: Python Traceroute

Huitzilopochtli
Member



Posts: 1644
Location:
Joined: 19.02.13
Rank:
God
Posted on 21-02-17 13:35
Nice tutorial man, you should stick the finished script in the code bank as well.

Python is an awesome language.