The problem is reported as affecting Chrome 45 and older, although it also seems to kill version 47 on the Dev channel. The issue stems from the inclusion of a NULL character in the URL and has already been reported to Google.
To see if your browser is affected, you just need to type http://a/%%30%30 into the address bar, and hit Enter.
The bug was discovered by Andris Atteka, and the reason for what is happening is explained as:
It seems to be crashing in some very old code. In the Debug build, it's hitting a DCHECK on an invalid URL in GURL, deep in some History code.
Although Google runs a bug bounty program, the company is not paying out in this instance because it is not seen as a security problem -- although it is certainly an issue that is slightly irritating and open to exploitation.
So you all might as well have some fun with it, while it lasts.