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The Development Of Computers

Arrow Image How hacking became what it is today.



The History Of Hacking
Pt. 1

The Development Of Computers
(1642 - 2001)

In 1642, a great man named Blaise Pascal developed a mechanism called the Pascaline to calculate with 8 figures and
carrying of 10's, 100's and 1000's ect. These were extremely valuable contributions for science and hacking in general. In honor of him, the name Pascal has been given to a programming language, as well as to many mathematical concepts.

In 1791, another great man named Charles Babbage becomes known as the "Father Of Computing" and the inventor of the first digital computer with his design of the Analytical machine which used Jacquard punch cards.

In 1830, Joseph Henry demonstrated long distance communication by sending an electrical current through a long distance of wire to create an electro magnetic force and ring a bell.

In late 1858, Cyrus West Field was cheifly responsible for laying the first submarine telegraph cable between America and Europe. This was a major boost yet again improving our advance in communications.

In March 1876, Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell both independantly designed devices that could transmit speech electrically, these devices are still used today as you most probably will know, these devices were called the telephone. Both men rushed their designs to the patent office within hours of each other but Alexander Graham Bell patented his telephone first.

Mid 1911, IBM (International Buisness Machines) is founded, which became a leader in PC productions.

1935, Alan Turing AKA "The Father Of Computer Science) invents the turing machine which gives a mathematically precise definition algorithm or 'mechanical procedure'.

In the 1950's, two new programming languages come onto the scene, Fortran and Lisp. Shortly after the release of them, the DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) was founded in the U.S. as a response to the Soviet Union's SPUTNIK.

In the 1960's, the Bell 103 become the first commercial modem. Made by the AT&T the modem boasted data rates up to 300 bits per second. Telephones being switched by computers was brought in rendering the job of manual switching of phone call networks. A familliar ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Intercharge) is created by Robert Berner. The computer mouse was invented in 1963 and Ted Nelson coins the term hypertext. IBM invent the first floppy disk. "Intel" is founded. CompuServe time sharing is invented which later becomes a key to the first online email service. Intel makes the announcement of a much larger RAM (Random Access Memory) chip which boasts of a 1KB capacity. Bell labs invent UNIX in late 1969. The first hackers emerge at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). They borrow their name from a term to describe members of a model train group at the school who "hack" the electric trains, tracks and switches to make them perform faster and differently. A few of the members transfer their curiosity and rigging skills to the new mainframe computing systems being studied and developed on campus. AMD is founded! As you can see the 60's were a key stage for hacking and computers.

The 1970's. DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) introduces the famous PDP-11 (Programmed Data Processor). Some of the best computer hackers in the world cut their teeth on -11's. "The finger" command is released for UNIX. A vietnam vet finds that a certain whistle he got in his cereal (no kidding) gave off the same 2600-hertz signal as of the AT&T's long distance switching system and built the first blue box allowing him free phonecalls. The first email program written by Ray Tomlinson and used on Arpanet (Internet). The first personal computer called the Kenback-1 is advertised in Scientific American for $750. Designed by John Blankenbaker the Kenback came with 256 bytes of memory. UNIX computer operating system is rewritten in C programming language. The NCSA (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) developes the telnet application which is used for remote logins to other computers. Gary Kildall begins development of CP/M (Control Program/Monitor) operating system, after he released that everyone turned to bill gates new ms-dos system. With 60 MBytes of storage, IBM introduces the model 3340 Winchester sealed hard disk drive. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is introduced which makes the transfer of files between networked computers a standard. The first major shell was the Bourne shell (sh) which was named after its inventor Stephen Bourne. Bill Gates and Paul Allen found Microsoft. Apple computer introduces their first computer, the Apple 1. The Atari 2600 game console is selling for $199.95. The C programming language by Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie is published.

The 1980's. The 80s will see the increased use of BBSs (Bulletin Board Systems). The Elk Clone virus was the first computer virus found in the wild and was reputed to have spread from Texas A&M. DNS (Domain Name System) is conceived by Dr. David Mills. While working at IBM and developing the PC's BIOS David Bradley creates the code for Ctrl-Alt-Delete (three finger salute). Microsoft acquires complete rights to Seattle Computer Product’s DOS (Disk Operating System) and names it MS-DOS. John Warnock and Charles Geschke found Adobe Systems. Book author William Gibson coins the term cyberspace. SGI (Silicon Graphics Inc.) introduces their UNIX-like operating system called IRIX. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is published. SMTP is a TCP/IP protocol used in the transmission of email across the Internet. Telnet protocol is published. Apple introduces Macintosh System 1.0. C++ programming language is released by Bjarne Stroustrup. After a few new systems, Apple introduces Macintosh System 6.0. The JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) file format for image compression is adopted. At the Cern laboratory for research in high-energy physics in Geneva, Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau develop the protocols that will become the World Wide Web (WWW). IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is started from the efforts of Jarkko Oikarinen while attending the University of Oulu.

The 1990's. Arpanet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) ceases to exist. Archie (ARCHIvE) is created by Alan Emtage and Bill Heelan. EFF (Electronic Frontier Foundation) is formed by Mitch Kapor and John Barlow in part to defend the rights of people online. Gopher is released by Paul Lindner and Mark McCahill. Gopher is a distributed document search and retrieval network protocol. The text-based Lynx browser for UNIX is released by Lou Montulli. While working at Netscape Lou will also name and develop the concept of using "cookies", which are used by web sites to track visitors. DOS version of AOL released.
Python programming language by Guido van Rossum is released to Usenet. Apple introduces Macintosh System 7.0. Linus Torvalds publicly releases Linux version 0.01. FreeBSD version 1.0 is released. Opera web browser first released. The first version of Netscape web browser is released. Ruby programming language is released by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto. Computer security specialist Tsutomu Shimomura will help track down and capture Kevin Mitnick. Ex-LOD member Corey Lindsly (Mark Tabas) was the major ringleader in a computer hacker organization known as the Phonemasters whose ultimate goal was to own the telecommunications infrastructure from coast-to-coast. Apache web server is released. Java programming language is created by James Gosling. The first online bookstore Amazon is launched in Seattle by Jeffrey Bezos. Internet Explorer 1.0 is released. Microsoft releases Windows 95 and sells more than 1 Million copies within 4 days. eBay is founded by Pierre Omidyar. Hotmail created by Sabeer Bhatia and Jack Smith goes online. Microsoft releases Windows NT (New Technology) 4.0. DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) format released and DVD players/movies hit the consumer market. DVD-Recordable systems/equipment hit the consumer market. Microsoft releases Windows 98. Apple introduces Mac OS 9. Linux kernel 2.2 is released. Apple releases Mac OS X Server with their Macintosh GUI, a UNIX based OS that Apple names Darwin. The Napster peer-to-peer MP3 file-sharing system is created by Northeastern University student Shawn Fanning.

2000 - 2001. Microsoft releases Windows ME. A 16-year-old Canadian hacker nicknamed 'Mafiaboy' carries out a distributed denial-of-service attack consisting of a 1-gigabits-per-second flood of IP packet requests from "zombie" servers which knocked Yahoo off-line for over 3 hours. Microsoft releases Windows XP. Apple introduces the iPod portable music player. Linux kernel 2.4 is released. BitTorrent is released by Bram Cohen. In early 2005 it was reported that one-third of all internet traffic was generated by BitTorrent. Microsoft admits that its corporate network has been hacked and source code for future Windows products has been seen. Apple announces Aqua which is the new desktop design for their upcoming MacOS X operating system.

As you can see, the computer world just gets more influence as it goes on. This may seem like just some random points but every fact there is a key one to the hacking world. It's how computers and hackers evolved.

By English Panda

Comments

Mr_Cheeseon June 24 2006 - 22:13:43
very imformative.
EnglishPandaon June 24 2006 - 23:41:36
Yeah, a little to informative but i'm very lazy.
-The_Flash-on June 25 2006 - 02:15:26
Nice article. Submit it to wikipedia.
aenman123on June 25 2006 - 04:07:27
thats good, now put this with wikipedias history of hacking article, and u got one hell of a history!
thousandtooneon June 25 2006 - 07:13:38
PLAUGERIZED. http://www.wbglinks.net/pages/history/
thousandtooneon June 25 2006 - 07:53:41
Great article, now if only it was yours. For HBH to stay legal, this better get some permission and attribute it to the real author. HBH has to stay legal to stay up, and copyright law is included.
EnglishPandaon June 25 2006 - 12:16:05
I used that page for facts, notice i put it into my own words... I cannot write a fact database article out of memory or rumaging through books and expecting to get an accurate article. I used that and a few other links to gain the knowledge and information i needed to place in this article, if anyone finds that "illegal" or "unfair" then they can email me or something stupid like that.
EnglishPandaon June 25 2006 - 12:18:49
I forgot to say, theres no legit copyright laws reserved for that article, infact most of that site isn't reserved for copyright laws...
godon June 25 2006 - 17:27:06
nice article, very informative, and you could just add something like: " _References: " and put the links you kinda were influenced by or that u quoted..
EnglishPandaon June 25 2006 - 20:46:59
Okay, will do...
thousandtooneon June 27 2006 - 05:54:32
References and copy/paste locations are a little bit different. Just a wee bit.Shock
EnglishPandaon June 27 2006 - 17:23:17
I just realised something HBH belongs to network of hactivists who are completely against copyright laws... so FUCK THOUSANDTOONE AND FUCK COPYRIGHT LAWS!!!
intersliceon July 03 2006 - 07:53:03
nice article.
thousandtooneon July 09 2006 - 13:50:50
EnglishPanda, no, we're not against that. This site does not support the breaking of copyright law, nor does it support any illegal activities such as inappropriate usages of hacking, phreaking, or file sharing.
midoon September 23 2007 - 23:02:14
Nice article...Thank you!
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